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Surgeon-performed ultrasonography (US) of thyroid nodules might serve as a potential therapeutic guide to designate accurate surgical or clinical intervention.To evaluate the diagnostic adequacy of surgeon-performed ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules, the factors responsible for diagnostic adequacy and the impact of surgeon-performed US on treatment approach.Retrospective review of a single surgeon performed 621 US-guided FNABs without on-site cytological specimen assessment. Outside US findings were compared to the surgeon-performed US. Measured variables and outcomes for the study included diagnostic adequacy rates and the effects of detected differences between US reports on treatment variability.Diagnostic adequacy rate of surgeon-performed US-guided FNAB was determined to be 94.52% without on-site specimen evaluation by cytologist. Non-diagnostic specimens occurred in 34 of 621 (5.48%) nodules. The differences detected between the outside US and surgeon-performed US altered invasive treatment algorithm in 30 (5.47%) patients. FNAB was avoided for 15 (2.7%) patients. Total thyroidectomy became the preferred surgical option in 15 (2.7%) patients after the discovery of additional nodules in the contralateral lobe.Surgeon-performed US offers clear clinical benefits in terms of diagnostic yield of FNAB with providing valuable additional data that might alter surgical treatment approach. J. Surg. Oncol. 2013;107:206–210. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.