Adaptation of the Composite Scale of Morningness for Parent Report and Results from Kindergarten Children

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Abstract.Chronotype, or morningness-eveningness, refers to a person's preference for a given time of day for intellectual and/or physical activities. It has many implications on health, well-being, performance, and daytime functioning. Because few data are available on prepubertal children, we assessed morningness-eveningness in kindergarten children using a parent-report scale, which was an adapted version of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), and sleep-wake variables. A total of 199 parents of children from 15 kindergartens participated in the study. The CSM scores were relatively high, with a mean above 40 for all age groups, which clearly indicates that young children are early morning larks. Weekend wake-up times, rise times, bedtimes, and sleep-onset times were later than on weekdays. Sleep length did not differ in this respect, but time in bed was longer on weekends. Midpoint of sleep was earlier on weekdays. Wake times, rise times, bedtimes, and sleep-onset times were inversely correlated with the CSM score, suggesting that morning-oriented children woke up, got out of bed, went to bed, and fell asleep earlier than evening-oriented children. CSM scores correlated negatively with midpoint of sleep. Age correlated with CSM scores and midpoint of sleep.

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