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We conducted a literature review to examine the effects of self-esteem in the family context, selecting 40 studies exploring the associations between self-esteem, coparental relationship, parent-child relationship, and global family functioning. The research focused primarily on self-esteem and the parent-child relationship. The evidence indicates that parents with high self-esteem experience enhanced satisfaction with their children and exhibit more positive interactions with them. It was also found that parents’ high self-esteem is associated with less physical abuse and child neglect. Studies focusing on coparenting and family functioning are still rare, and more evidence is needed to establish robust conclusions.