In the present study the central and peripheral regulation of VEGF, its cognate receptors, and regulators were examined after acute and chronic restraint stress in rats. After chronic restraint stress (6 h per day for 21 days) the protein levels of VEGF (175 ± 24%) and its receptor VEGFR-2 (169 ± 17%) increased significantly in the prefrontal cortex (A and B). mRNA levels of VEGFR-2 (132 ± 11%) were also significantly increased (D). In the hippocampus no significant changes were observed at the mRNA or protein levels. In serum there was a tendency towards increased VEGF protein expression after both acute and chronic restraint stress (C).