Permeability of Blood–Brain Barrier in Macaque Model of 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson Disease

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Abstract

Brain bioavailability of drugs developed to address central nervous system diseases is classically documented through cerebrospinal fluid collected in normal animals, i.e., through an approximation as there are fundamental differences between cerebrospinal fluid and tissue contents. The fact that disease might affect brain availability of drugs is almost never considered at this stage although several conditions are associated with blood–brain barrier damage. Building upon our expertise in Parkinson's disease translational research, the present study addressed this gap comparing plasma and cerebrospinal fluid bioavailability of L−3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, carbamazepine, quinidine, lovastatin, and simvastatin, in healthy and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated macaques, the gold standard model of Parkinson's disease. The drugs were selected based upon their differential transport across the blood–brain barrier. Interestingly, brain bioavailability of quinidine was decreased while others were unaffected. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics experiments of drugs addressing Parkinson's disease might thus be performed in healthy animals unless the drugs are known to interact with the organic cation transporter.

As a pathological state may compromise drug brain bioavailability, we measured the plasma and cerebro-spinal fluid levels of L-DOPA, carbamazepine, quinidine, lovastatin and simvastatin in normal and parkinsonian (MPTP) macaque monkeys. Since no major bioavailability differences were observed, we conclude that brain bioavailability can be studied in normal monkeys.

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