During a parasitological survey carried out between March and September 2003 in Cuba, the following monogeneans were found on the gills of freshwater fishes: Salsuginus cubensis n. sp. on the Cuban molly Limia vittata Guichenot (Poeciliidae); Cichlidogyrus sclerosus Paperna & Thurston, 1969 and C. tilapiae Paperna, 1960 on the African cichlid Tilapia rendalli Boulenger (Cichlidae); Haplocleidus dispar Mueller, 1936 and Pterocleidus acer Mueller, 1936 (all Dactylogyridae) on the sunfish Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque (Centrarchidae) (new geographical records); and Gyrodactylus sp. (Gyrodactylidae) on the biajaca Nandopsis tetracanthus Valenciennes (Cichlidae) (new host and geographical record). Salsuginus cubensis differs from all other species of the genus in the size and morphology of the copulatory complex. The occurrence of C. sclerosus, C. tilapiae, H. dispar and P. acer in their respective hosts is due to the introduction of these hosts to Cuba. A review of the species composition of the Monogenea in native and introduced freshwater fish from Cuba is presented and the zoogeographical distribution of the species found is briefly discussed.