The effect of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on reproduction and development ofDrosophila melanogasterand CD-1 mice

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In the last two decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) NPs are both found in cosmetics and foods, but their increasing use is of concern due to their ability to be taken up by biological systems. While there are some reports of TiO2 and Ag NPs affecting complex organisms, their effects on reproduction and development have been largely understudied. Here, the effects of orally administered TiO2 or Ag NPs on reproduction and development in two different model organisms were investigated. TiO2 NPs reduced the developmental success of CD-1 mice after a single oral dose of 100 or 1000 mg/kg to dams, resulting in a statistically significant increase in fetal deformities and mortality. Similarly, TiO2 NP addition to food led to a significant progeny loss in the fruit fly, Drosophila, as shown by a decline in female fecundity. Ag NP administration resulted in an increase in the mortality of fetal mice. Similarly in Drosophila, Ag NP feeding led to a significant decrease in developmental success, but unlike TiO2 NP treatment, there was no decline in fecundity. The distinct response associated with each type of NP likely reflects differences in NP administration as well as the biology of the particular model. Taken together, however, this study warns that these common NPs could be detrimental to the reproductive and developmental health of both invertebrates and vertebrates.

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