Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, ameliorates the hypertensive and perivascular fibrotic actions of cyclosporine in rats: Role of endothelin signaling

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The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (CSA) is used with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in arthritic conditions. In this study, we investigated whether NSAIDs modify the deleterious hypertensive action of CSA and the role of endothelin (ET) receptors in this interaction. Pharmacologic, protein expression, and histopathologic studies were performed in rats to investigate the roles of endothelin receptors (ETA/ETB) in the hemodynamic interaction between CSA and two NSAIDs, indomethacin and celecoxib. Tail-cuff plethysmography measurements showed that CSA (20 mg kg−1 day−1, 10 days) increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR). CSA hypertension was associated with renal perivascular fibrosis and divergent changes in immunohistochemical signals of renal arteriolar ETA (increases) and ETB (decreases) receptors. While these effects of CSA were preserved in rats treated concomitantly with indomethacin (5 mg kg−1 day−1), celecoxib (10 mg kg−1 day−1) abolished the pressor, tachycardic, and fibrotic effects of CSA and normalized the altered renal ETA/ETB receptor expressions. Selective blockade of ETA receptors by atrasentan (5 mg kg−1 day−1) abolished the pressor response elicited by CSA or CSA plus indomethacin. Alternatively, BQ788 (ETB receptor blocker, 0.1 mg kg−1 day−1) caused celecoxib-sensitive elevations in SBP and potentiated the pressor response evoked by CSA. Together, the improved renovascular fibrotic and endothelin receptor profile (ETA downregulation and ETB upregulation) mediate, at least partly, the protective effect of celecoxib against the hypertensive effect of CSA. Clinically, the use of celecoxib along with CSA in the management of arthritic conditions might provide hypertension-free regimen.

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