Deferiprone inhibits iron overload-induced tissue factor bearing endothelial microparticle generation by inhibition oxidative stress induced mitochondrial injury, and apoptosis

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Abstract

Iron overload-induced cardiovascular toxicity is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in beta-thalassemia major patients. We have previously shown that iron overload-induced systemic arterial changes characterized by endothelial dysfunction are associated with increased endothelial microparticle (EMP) release. In this study, we further demonstrate how EMP release is associated with iron-induced mitochondrial injury and apoptosis of endothelial cells. Iron increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium influx into mitochondria [Ca2 +]m. Iron also disturbed mitochondrial respiration function and eventually led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). A significant increase in apoptotic cells and EMPs were found under iron treatment. EMPs contained tissue factor (TF), which has potential clinical impact on thromboembolic phenomenon. Then, we investigated the salvaging effect of deferiprone (L1) on endothelial cell damage and EMP release. We found that L1 could inhibit iron-induced ROS generation, and decrease mitochondrial damage with the resultant effect of less endothelial cell apoptosis and EMP release. L1 could protect endothelial cells from iron-induced toxic effects and minimize EMP release, which could be potentially helpful in a subgroup of thalassemia patients who have increased thromboembolic complications.

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