Studies suggest that oxalate is involved in the development oxaliplatin-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy (OPSN). This study aimed to compare the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin with its oxalate-free cytotoxic analogue cis-[PtII(1R,2R-DACH)(3-acetoxy-1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato)] (LLC-1402) in mice. Oxaliplatin and LLC-1402 were intravenously injected in male Swiss mice with a total of nine injections. Oxalate was intraperitoneally injected in other animals. The development of OPSN was evaluated using mechanical and thermal sensitivity tests. Dorsal root ganglia of the mice were removed to evaluate c-Fos, ATF3 and iNOS expression and a sample of blood was collected for leukocyte count and hepatic and renal biochemical function tests. Oxaliplatin and LLC-1402 decreased the mechanical and thermal nociceptive threshold, whilst oxalate lead to a partial and later increase in the mechanical sensitivity (P < 0.05). c-Fos, ATF3 and iNOS expressions were increased in neuronal cells during and after the end of the injections in animals treated with oxaliplatin and LLC-1402 (P < 0.05), even though oxaliplatin lead to an earlier increase. Only c-Fos expression was elevated during the period of injections in the oxalate group (P < 0.05), but this expression reduced after the end of the treatment. c-Fos expression was also shown in glial satellite cells only in the oxaliplatin-treated animals. Oxaliplatin and LLC-1402 reduced leukocyte count (P < 0.05), but did not change renal and liver functions. In conclusion, oxalate may contribute to an earlier development of peripheral sensory neuropathy. However, the antitumor cytotoxic mechanism of oxaliplatin seems to be the main responsible by its neurotoxic effect.