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Acute exposure to high concentrations of H2S causes severe brain injury and long-term neurological disorders, but the mechanisms involved are not known. To better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in acute H2S-induced neurodegeneration we used a broad-spectrum proteomic analysis approach to identify key molecules and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of acute H2S-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Mice were subjected to acute inhalation exposure of up to750 ppm of H2S. H2S induced behavioral deficits and severe lesions including hemorrhage in the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC was microdissected for proteomic analysis. Tandem mass tags (TMT) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based quantitative proteomics was applied for protein identification and quantitation. LC-MS/MS identified 598, 562, and 546 altered proteomic changes at 2h, and on days 2 and 4 post-H2S exposure, respectively. Of these, 77 proteomic changes were statistically significant at any of the 3 time points. Mass spectrometry data were subjected to Perseus 184.108.40.206 statistical analysis, and gene ontology heat map clustering. Expressions of several key molecules were verified to confirm H2S-dependent proteomics changes. Webgestalt pathway overrepresentation enrichment analysis with Panther engine revealed H2S exposure disrupted several biological processes including metabotropic glutamate receptor group 1 and inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways among others. Further analysis showed that energy metabolism, integrity of blood-brain barrier, hypoxic, and oxidative stress signaling pathways were also implicated. Collectively, this broad-spectrum proteomics data has provided important clues to follow up in future studies to further elucidate mechanisms of H2S-induced neurotoxicity.Mice exposed to H2S recapitulated H2S-induced neurotoxicity manifested in humans.Proteomic profiling analyses were performed to elucidate H2S-induced neurotoxicity.Acute H2S exposure dysregulated several biological pathways.Hypoxia, glutamate-mediated toxicity, and oxidative stress were implicated.H2S exposure induced breach of the blood-brain barrier.