Bisphenol A induced male germ cell apoptosis via IFNβ-XAF1-XIAP pathway in adult mice

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Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) impairs male fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. However, the mechanisms by which BPA cause reproductive toxicity are not fully elucidated. Here, we explored the role of XAF1, a novel pro-apoptosis molecule, in BPA-induced abnormal spermatogenesis and the transcriptional regulation mechanism of BPA-induced XAF1. BPA exposure detrimentally impacted spermatogenesis by inducing excessive germ cell apoptosis. XAF1 was upregulated in germ cells after BPA exposure, which was involved in the apoptosis pathway. In addition, the expression levels of XIAP and XAF1 were inversely correlated after BPA exposure. Knockdown of XAF1 expression partially inhibited the apoptosis of GC-2 cells, suppressed the activation of caspase 3 and improved the BPA-induced XIAP expression. Moreover, IFNβ expression levels were significantly upregulated after BPA exposure both in vitro and in vivo, and these levels were positively related to the expression of XAF1. Furthermore, IFNβ knockdown reduced the expression of XAF1 and increased the expression of XIAP in BPA-treated GC-2 cells. Together, these data indicated that BPA triggers male germ cell apoptosis in mice via the IFNβ-XAF1-XIAP pathway, which may contribute to BPA-induced testis toxicity.

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