Inflammatory mediators resulting from transglutaminase 2 expressed in mast cells contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease in a mouse model

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This study aimed to investigate the role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expressed in mast cells in substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) model or human PD patients. C57BL/6 mice received 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by ip injection to induce PD. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were adoptively transferred to TG2 knockout (KO or TG2−/−) mice by iv injection 1 day before MPTP injection or stimulated by 1 methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MMP+). KO-MPTP mice showed reduced expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and loss of TH+ DA neurons, and expression of markers (c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI), mediators' release (histamine, leukotrienes, cytokines), and TG2 related to mast cells, and co-localization of DA neuronal cells and mast cells in SN tissues or release of mediators and TG2 activity in SN tissues and sera versus those in WT (wild type)-MPTP or BM + KO-MPTP mice. KO-MPTP mice reversed the alterations of behavior. KO-BMMCs-transferred KO-MPTP (BM + KO-MPTP) mice had restoration of all the responses versus the KO-MPTP mice. MPP+-stimulated BMMCs had increased mediators' release, which were inhibited by TG2 inhibitor (R2 peptide). All the mediators and TG2 activity were also increased in the sera of human PD patients. The data suggest that TG2 expressed in mast cells recruited into SN tissues might contribute to neuroinflammation, which is known as one of the important features in pathogenesis of PD, via up-regulating the release of various mediators.Graphical abstractHighlightsMast cells recruited into substantia nigra (SN) of PD, are activated by MPP+.The activated mast cells activate TG2 in the SN tissues of PD model in mice.Mast cells-activated TG2 releases mediators such as histamine, LTs and cytokines.Mediators may induce neuroinflammation caused DA neuron death in mouse and human PD.TG2 inhibitor may be developed as a therapeutic agent for human PD patients.

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