Effect of different macronutrients in excess on gastric sensory and motor functions and appetite in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans1–3

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Background: The effects of supplementation with different macronutrients on gastric sensory and motor functions are unclear.

Objective: We aimed to compare the effects of 2 wk of supplementation with different classes of macronutrients on gastric function, satiation, and appetite in healthy and overweight subjects.

Design: In a parallel-group, double-blind study, 52 (14 men, 38 women) healthy normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 19.4–47.0] aged 18–64 y were randomly assigned to consume different isocaloric diets (n = 13 per diet group) adjusted for BMI and activity level. The standard diet provided 20% of energy as protein, 30% as fat, and 50% as carbohydrate. The high-protein, high-fat, and high-carbohydrate diets contained 500 additional kcal in each nutrient class. On 3 separate days, we measured gastric emptying of solids, gastric volumes, postprandial symptoms, appetite, and food choice with validated methods. Age, sex, BMI, and baseline satiation were covariates in the analysis of covariance.

Results: Fat supplementation was associated with increased maximum tolerated volume (MTV) in subjects with a high baseline MTV (P < 0.05), irrespective of BMI. Gastric emptying and volumes, postprandial symptoms, total calories, and food choices at an ad libitum meal were not significantly different after each dietary preload. Fasting gastric volumes tended to be higher with the high-fat than with the high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets (P ≤ 0.1). Gastric emptying and volumes and satiation were not significantly different between the BMI categories (< and >30).

Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 kcal fat in excess of required calories for 2 wk increased food tolerance in healthy normalweight and obese subjects with a high baseline MTV without significantly changing gastric motor functions. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:411–8.

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