Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003-20081-3

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Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake.


We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their selfselected diets.


We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003-2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods.


In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P < 0.0001). With increasing 24-h beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P < 0.0001).


Higher 24-h beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:1369-78.

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