Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes1-3

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Abstract

Background:

There is evidence that reducing blood glucose concentrations, inducing weight loss, and improving the lipid profile reduces cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes.

Objective:

We assessed the effect of various diets on glycemic control, lipids, and weight loss.

Design:

We conducted searches of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to August 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with interventions that lasted ≥6 mo that compared lowcarbohydrate, vegetarian, vegan, low-glycemic index (GI), high-fiber, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets with control diets including low-fat, high-GI, American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and low-protein diets.

Results:

A total of 20 RCTs were included (n = 3073 included in final analyses across 3460 randomly assigned individuals). The lowcarbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets all led to a greater improvement in glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin reductions of 20.12% (P = 0.04), 20.14% (P = 0.008), 20.47% (P < 0.00001), and 20.28% (P < 0.00001), respectively] compared with their respective control diets, with the largest effect size seen in the Mediterranean diet. Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss [20.69 kg (P = 0.21) and 21.84 kg (P < 0.00001), respectively], with an increase in HDL seen in all diets except the high-protein diet.

Conclusion:

Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management.

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