The relation between carbohydrate intake and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) has not been fully explored in Asian populations known to have high-carbohydrate diets.Objective:
We assessed whether intakes of total carbohydrates, different types of carbohydrates, and their food sources were associated with IHD mortality in a Chinese population.Design:
We prospectively examined the association of carbohydrate intake and IHD mortality in 53,469 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study with an average follow-up of 15 y. Diet was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated by using a Cox proportional hazards analysis.Results:
We documented 1660 IHD deaths during 804,433 person-years of follow-up. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with IHD mortality risk [men: HR per 5% of energy, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.03); women: 1.06 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.14)]. When types of carbohydrates were analyzed individually, starch intake was associated with higher risk [men: 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.08); women: 1.08, (95% CI: 1.02, 1.14)] and fiber intake with lower risk of IHD mortality [men: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.08); women: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.84)], with stronger associations in women than men (both P-interaction < 0.01). In substitution analyses, the replacement of one daily serving of rice with one daily serving of noodles was associated with higher risk (difference in HR: 26.11%; 95% CI: 10.98%, 43.30%). In contrast, replacing one daily serving of rice with one of vegetables (−23.81%; 95% CI: −33.12%, −13.20%), fruit (−11.94%; 95% CI: −17.49%, −6.00%), or whole-wheat bread (−19.46%; 95% CI: −34.28%, −1.29%) was associated with lower risk of IHD death.Conclusions:
In this Asian population with high carbohydrate intake, the total amount of carbohydrates consumed was not substantially associated with IHD mortality. In contrast, the shifting of food sources of carbohydrates toward a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was associated with lower risk of IHD death.