Acute load-dependent effects of oral whey protein on gastric emptying, gut hormone release, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men1,2

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Background:In healthy individuals, intraduodenal whey protein load-dependently modulates gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions and suppresses energy intake. The effect of oral whey, particularly the impact of load, has not been evaluated.Objective:The purpose of this study was to quantify gastric emptying of 30 and 70 g of oral whey protein loads and their relation to gastrointestinal hormone, glycemic, and appetitive responses.Design:On 3 separate occasions in a randomized, double-blind order, 18 lean men [mean ± SEM age: 24.8 ± 1.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 21.6 ± 0.5] received iso-osmolar, equally palatable drinks (˜450 mL) containing 30 g pure whey protein isolate (L), 70 g pure whey protein isolate (H), or saline (control). Gastric emptying (with the use of 3-dimensional ultrasound), plasma cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, glucagon, total amino acids, and blood glucose were measured for 180 min after consumption of the drinks, and energy intake at a buffet-style lunch was quantified.Results:Gastric emptying of the L and H drinks was comparable when expressed in kilocalories per minute (L: 2.6 ± 0.2 kcal/min; H: 2.9 ± 0.3 kcal/min) and related between individuals (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). Gastrointestinal hormone, insulin, and glucagon responses to the L and H drinks were comparable until ˜45–60 min after ingestion, after which time the responses became more differentiated. Blood glucose was modestly reduced after the H drink between t = 45 and 150 min when compared with the L drink (all P < 0.05). Energy intake was suppressed by both L and H drinks compared with control (P < 0.05) (control: 1174 ± 91 kcal; L: 1027 ± 81 kcal; and H: 997 ± 71 kcal).Conclusion:These findings indicate that, in healthy lean men, the rate of gastric emptying of whey protein is independent of load and determines the initial gastrointestinal hormone response. This study was registered at as 12611000706976.

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