This study investigated the comparative susceptibility of indigenous Moo Laat and improved Large White/Landrace pig breeds to infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) under controlled conditions in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The Moo Laat (ML) and Large White/Landrace crossbreed (LWC) pigs were inoculated with a standard challenge strain designated Lao/Kham225 (infectivity titre of 102.75 TCID50/ml). The results demonstrated that both the native breed and an improved pig breed are fully susceptible to CSFV infection and the mortality rate is high. LWC pigs demonstrated lower (or shorter) survival times (50% survival time: 11 days), earlier and higher pyrexia and earlier onset of viraemia compared to ML pigs (50% survival time: 18 days). In the context of village-based pig production, the longer time from infection to death in native ML pigs means that incubating or early sick pigs are likely to be sold once an outbreak of CSF is recognized in a village. This increased longevity probably contributes to the maintenance and spread of disease in a population where generally the contact rate is low.