This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and annual trends for growth and fertility traits of Charolais and Hereford cattle in Kenya. Traits considered were birth weight (BW, kg), pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG, kg/day) and weaning weight (WW, kg); calving interval (CI, days) and age at first calving (AFC, days). Direct heritability estimates for growth traits were 0.36 and 0.21; 0.25 and 0.10; 0.23 and 0.13 for BW, ADG and WW in Charolais and Hereford, respectively. Maternal heritability estimates were 0.11 and 0.01; 0.18 and 0.00; 0.17 and 0.17 for BW, ADG and WW in Charolais and Hereford, respectively. Direct-maternal genetic correlations ranged between -0.46 and 1.00; -0.51 and -1.00; -0.47 and -0.39 for BW, ADG and WW in Charolais and Hereford, respectively. Genetic correlations ranged from -0.99 to unity and -1.00 to unity for growth and fertility traits respectively. Prospects for improvement of growth and fertility traits exist.