This study was to investigate the frequency of HLA-B27 and its subtypes in the Han population of Hunan province, southern China. One hundred and sixty-nine healthy unrelated donors were tested for HLA-B27 by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). One hundred and twenty-eight B27-positive spondyloarthropathy patients and 18 B27-positive healthy controls were subtyped using the high-resolution PCR-SSP. The phenotype frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 was found to be 2.36% in healthy population. Five B27 alleles were identified: B*2704, B*2705, B*2706, B*2707, and B*2724. No significant difference was found in the distribution of HLA-B27 subtypes between the patients and controls studied. Notably, B*2724 was observed in a juvenile patient with ankylosing spondylitis. This subtype has not been previously reported in Chinese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and other ethnic groups.