Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Open Heart Operations: 10-Year Follow-up With Risk Analysis1

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Abstract

Background.

The intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) is the primary mechanical device used for perioperative cardiac failure.

Methods.

We analyzed the prognostic predictors and long-term survival of 344 patients undergoing cardiac operations who required the perioperative use of an IABP at our institution from January 1980 to December 1989. Hospital survivors (163 patients) were followed up for a mean of 7.45 years (range, 1 month to 15.3 years); cumulative follow-up included 1,167 patient-years.

Results.

The early mortality rate was 52.6% (181 patients). From parameters available at the time of IABP insertion, logistic regression analysis identified preoperative serum creatinine level, left ventricular ejection fraction, perioperative myocardial infarction, timing of IABP insertion, and indication for operation as independent predictors of early (30-day) death (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis of hospital survivors identified timing of IABP insertion, perfusion time, and preoperative serum creatinine level as independent prognostic factors for late death (p < 0.05), whereas patient age was only marginally significant (p < 0.06). There was no association between IABP-related complications and death. Survival analysis demonstrated a 10-year actual survival rate of 22.04% ± 0.023%, with 57 patients still at risk and significantly improved survival among those who received an IABP before operation (p < 0.02).

Conclusions.

The early mortality rate in patients who received an IABP was high. Hospital survivors had a relatively good long-term prognosis. The significantly better short- and long-term survival of patients who received an IABP before operation may justify more liberal preoperative use of the IABP in high-risk patients.

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