Mixed type of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

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The mixed type of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare condition in which some diagnostic and surgical problems still remain to be solved.


In 9 patients a single pulmonary vein was connected to the systemic vein at a site different from the drainage site of the confluence of three other pulmonary veins. In 2 other patients, four pulmonary veins made a confluence which had two drainage sites. Correct diagnosis was made in all 7 patients who received cardiac catheterization but only in 5 of the 9 patients by color Doppler echocardiography. Total correction was performed in 3 patients and the single anomalous pulmonary vein was left uncorrected in 8 other patients.


There were two in-hospital deaths. Seven patients with a single residual anomalous pulmonary vein have been in good condition without clinical symptoms of congestive heart failure or pulmonary hypertension.


Diagnosis of mixed type of total anomalous pulmonary venous correction by echocardiography is sometimes difficult. When a mixed type is suspected, cardiac catheterization is recommended if the condition of the patient permits it. A single anomalous pulmonary vein may be left uncorrected without serious complications, but close observation is needed to prevent congestive heart failure and pulmonary vascular obstructive disease.

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