Elective drainage of the apical chest by posterior approach

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Pneumothorax due to incomplete reexpansion of remaining lung after a thoracic operation is difficult to drain via standard access routes. Apical chest drainage can be placed through a upper posterior point of the back, located in the laterovertebral area at the level of the first or second intercostal space. This technique, which is very safe and well tolerated, avoids the necessity to use thoracoplasty or muscle flap plombage of those residual cavities.

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