Left ventricular mass reduction after aortic valve replacement: homografts, stentless and stented valves

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Abstract

Background.

We studied the effect of four different types of prosthetic aortic valves on time course and extent of regression of left ventricular hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.

Methods.

Four groups of 10 patients each were randomly assigned to receive: (1) aortic homograft preserved in antibiotic solution at 4°C, (2) Toronto stentless porcine valve, (3) Medtronic Freestyle stentless valve, or (4) Medtronic Intact aortic valve. The left ventricular mass index, effective orifice area index, and peak and mean transaortic gradients were measured by Doppler echocardiography before the operation and 8 months postoperatively.

Results.

The hemodynamic performance indices were much better for the homograft and stentless valves than for the stented one. The absolute left ventricular mass index reduction was greater in the homograft group compared with the Intact (p = 0.0004) and Toronto (p = 0.007) groups. The extent of percent left ventricular mass index reduction was greater only in the homograft group versus Intact group (p = 0.005). The multilinear regression analysis showed that the only predictors of a larger percentage of left ventricular mass index reduction were the homograft type, a higher valve size index, and a higher preoperative left ventricular mass index.

Conclusions.

When a stentless or homograft aortic valve was used instead of a stented valve to replace a stenotic aortic valve there was more complete or at least faster regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. The hemodynamic performance of stentless porcine valves was similar to that of aortic homografts, nevertheless the aortic homografts preserved in antibiotic solution offered a faster regression of left ventricular hypertrophy during the same period of time.

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