Usefulness of Preoperative Intraaortic Balloon Pump Therapy During Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in High-Risk Patients

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Abstract

Background

In off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) surgery, the most critical complication is hemodynamic deterioration, which can occur during displacement of the heart to expose the target vessels. Preoperative intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) therapy improves cardiac performance and facilitates access to the target coronary artery while maintaining hemodynamic stability, especially in high-risk patients.

Methods

One hundred thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent OPCABG through sternotomy between April 2000 and July 2003 were studied. We compared the clinical results of 32 patients who underwent preoperative IABP placement (group 1) with those of 101 patients who did not have IABP placement (group 2). Of the 32 patients satisfying the insertion criteria, 15 had critical left main artery disease, 20 had unstable angina, 5 had acute myocardial infarction, and 5 had left ventricular dysfunction.

Results

There were no significant differences in the average number of distal anastomoses performed between group 1 and group 2 (3.1 ± 0.8 versus 3.3 ± 0.9, p = not significant). The complete revascularization rate was 95% in both group. There was no conversion to on-pump surgery in either group. There was no operative death in group 1 and only 1 death in group 2. In group 1, the number of patients who required prolonged ventilatory support (longer than 48 hours) was higher (3 versus 1, p = 0.036), and there was a higher incidence of low cardiac output syndrome (1 versus 0, p = 0.074). There were no IABP-related complications in group 1.

Conclusions

Preoperative IABP therapy for high-risk coronary patients is very effective in preventing hemodynamic instability and providing surgical results comparable with those in moderate- to lower-risk patients.

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