Impact of Preoperative Renal Dysfunction on Outcomes of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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Abstract

Background

This study assessed whether preoperative renal insufficiency predisposes patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery revascularization to postoperative dialysis.

Methods

From August 2004 through June 2009, 2,275 patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass were categorized into five groups (stages) by glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Of these, 1,855 patients had renal insufficiency: stage 2: 1,406; stage 3: 428; stage 4: 21, and 414 had normal renal function, stage 1. Excluded were 6 patients with end-stage renal disease (stage 5). Preoperative variables and postoperative outcomes were compared among groups.

Results

Preoperative patient characteristics were similar; however, patients with normal renal function were younger (p = 0.001). Serum creatinine rose significantly above baseline on the first postoperative day in the renal insufficiency groups (p = 0.001). The GFR groups had similar inotrope use, reexploration rate, duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation, postoperative stroke, wound infection, and mortality rate. Stage 4 patients had a higher incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.002). Stage 3 and 4 patients had an increased need for postoperative dialysis vs stage 1 patients (p = 0.002).

Conclusions

Nonparametric contingency analysis showed patients with low preoperative GFR (stage 3 and 4, p < 0.0001) and a history of smoking (p = 0.04) were at increased risk for postoperative dialysis. Patients who required postoperative inotropic support tended toward requiring postoperative dialysis (p = 0.06). Low preoperative ejection fraction (p = 0.83), class III or IV angina (p = 0.069), and postoperative blood transfusions were not associated with the need for postoperative dialysis in patients undergoing off-pump revascularization.

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