Clinical Outcome After Mitral Valve Surgery Due to Ischemic Papillary Muscle Rupture

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Abstract

Background

Severe mitral regurgitation secondary to papillary muscle rupture is an infrequent but catastrophic complication after myocardial infarction. Without surgical treatment, mortality can reach 80%, but surgical treatment also carries substantial perioperative morbidity and mortality.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 28 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery for ischemic papillary muscle rupture.

Results

The 30-day mortality rate was 39.3% (11 of 28). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics, and concomitant coronary artery bypass (CABG) was performed in 66.7% of the survivor group and in 61.5% of the nonsurvivor group (p = 0.245). Mortality predictors included low cardiac output (p = 0.05), renal failure (p = 0.005), and implementation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (p = 0.005). The time between myocardial infarction and surgery showed no significant effects on survival.

Conclusions

Papillary muscle rupture with severe mitral regurgitation carries a high operative mortality. Additional CABG does not influence the acute postoperative course. Postoperative development of low cardiac output with a need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and renal failure with hemodialysis substantially reduces survival.

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