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Heart transplantation requires substantial personal, financial, and psychosocial resources. Using an existing multisite data set, we examined predictors of mortality at 5 to 10 years after heart transplantation.All 555 participants completed a self-report quality of life instrument. Of these patients, 55 (10%) died 5 to 10 years after heart transplantation. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Cox proportional hazard modeling.Educational level and higher levels of social and economic satisfaction were predictive of improved survival. Conversely, married status, more cumulative infections, the presence of hematologic disorders, higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and poor adherence to medical care predicted worse survival.Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral factors were important predictors of long-term survival after heart transplantation. These findings have important implications for patient selection for heart transplantation, as well as for posttransplantation care.