Surgical Treatment of Aortic Valve Endocarditis With Left Ventricular-Aortic Discontinuity

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Abstract

Background

The periannular expansion of infection is a serious complication of infective endocarditis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluates the results of aortic annular reconstruction in active infective endocarditis with left ventricular-aortic discontinuity.

Methods

Left ventricular-aortic discontinuity was diagnosed by echocardiography in 25 (21 men, 4 female; mean age 60.2 ± 13.2 years) of 269 patients who underwent surgery for active native or prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis between January 2001 and October 2011. Seventeen (68%) and 8 (32%) patients had native and prosthetic valve endocarditis, respectively. Aortic root abscesses were radically debrided in all patients. The aortic annulus was reconstructed using autologous pericardium in 20 patients and a Dacron patch in 2. Isolated aortic valves were replaced with a bioprosthesis in 9 (36%) patients and a mechanical prosthesis in 13 (52%). Mechanical composite grafts were implanted in 3 (12%) patients. The mean follow-up was 29.1 ± 23.6 months and complete.

Results

Thirty-day mortality was 20% (n = 5). Survival at 3 years was 80% ± 8% with no significant difference between native and prosthetic valve endocarditis (log-rank, p = 0.69). Endocarditis did not recur during follow-up.

Conclusions

Despite procedural progress, surgery for aortic valve endocarditis with left ventricular-aortic discontinuity remains associated with significant in-hospital mortality, but mid-term survival after the perioperative period is good. Annular reconstruction with a pericardial patch is technically safe.

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