Strategies for Tricuspid Re-Repair in Ebstein Malformation Using the Cone Technique

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Successful tricuspid repair for Ebstein malformation (EM) is challenging. Cone repair has recently emerged as the most anatomic repair technique. There are no data on tricuspid re-repair in EM. We reviewed our experience with tricuspid valve (TV) re-repair using a cone technique.


Between June 2007 and October 2012, 134 patients underwent cone repair. Prior TV repair was performed in 20 patients (10 female, 50%). Median age was 15 years (range, 4 to 68 years). Four patients (20%) had prior bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BDCPA). Preoperative heart failure was present in 8 patients (40%). Recurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was due to incomplete leaflet coaptation with tethered anterior leaflet in all patients; and 10 patients (50%) had diminutive septal leaflet. Prior repair techniques consisted of annuloplasty maneuvers in all patients with no or incomplete surgical delamination in all patients.


The TV re-repair using cone technique was possible in all patients. Plication of atrialized right ventricle was done in 6 patients (30%). Modifications included annuloplasty band in 16 patients (80%) and TV leaflet augmentation in 8 (40%). The BDCPA was performed in 3 patients (15%) and modified Cox-maze procedure was done in 10 (50%). There were no mortalities or reoperations. Mean follow-up was 7.7 ± 10.7 months; during follow-up, 18 patients had no or mild TR and 2 had moderate TR.


TV re-repair in EM using the cone technique is feasible, particularly when there has been no surgical leaflet delamination at initial operation. Leaflet augmentation facilitates and annuloplasty band stabilizes a competent TV re-repair. Longer follow-up is required to assess durability.

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