Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) measured by transcranial Doppler sonography has provided information on cerebral perfusion in patients undergoing infant heart surgery, but no studies have reported a relationship to early postoperative and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.Methods
CBFV was measured in infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch reconstruction as part of a trial of hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); CBFV (Vm, mean; Vs, systolic; Vd, end-diastolic) in the middle cerebral artery and change in Vm (rVm) were measured intraoperatively and up to 18 hours post-CPB. Neurodevelopmental outcomes, measured at 1 year of age, included the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II.Results
CBFV was measured in 100 infants; 43 with D-transposition of the great arteries, 36 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 21 with ventricular septal defects. Lower Vm, Vs, Vd, and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently related to longer intensive care unit duration of stay (p < 0.05). In the 85 patients who returned for neurodevelopmental testing, lower Vm, Vs, Vd, and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently associated with lower PDI (p < 0.05) and MDI (p < 0.05, except Vs: p = 0.06) scores. Higher Vs and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently associated with increased incidence of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging in 39 patients.Conclusions
Postoperative CBFV after biventricular repair is related to early postoperative and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age, possibly indicating that low CBFV is a marker of suboptimal postoperative hemodynamics and cerebral perfusion.