Primary pleural malignant melanoma is an exceedingly rare neoplasm. To our knowledge only 3 cases have been reported. This report presents a rare case of a primary pleural malignant melanoma with rapid progression in a 36-year-old woman. The clinical, radiologic imaging and histopathologic features are discussed here. The diagnosis of melanoma was confirmed postoperatively after the immunohistochemistry. Due to the scarcity of similar cases reported in the literature, there are no reliable data on the management and the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, histopathologic and clinical criteria are important for diagnosing primary pleural malignant melanoma.