Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) develop deposits in the spine which may lead to vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Our aim was to establish which spinopelvic parameters are associated with the greatest disability in patients with spinal myeloma and VCFs.Patients and Methods
We performed a retrospective cross-sectional review of 148 consecutive patients (87 male, 61 female) with spinal myeloma and analysed correlations between spinopelvic parameters and patient-reported outcome scores. The mean age of the patients was 65.5 years (37 to 91) and the mean number of vertebrae involved was 3.7 (1 to 15).Results
The thoracolumbar region was most commonly affected (109 patients, 73.6%), and was the site of most posterior vertebral wall defects (47 patients, 31.8%). Poorer Oswestry Disability Index scores correlated with an increased sagittal vertical axis (p = 0.006), an increased number of VCFs (p = 0.035) and sternal involvement (p = 0.012). Poorer EuroQol visual analogue scale scores correlated with posterior vertebral wall defects in the thoracolumbar region (p = 0.012). The sagittal vertical axis increased with the number of fractures and kyphosis in the thoracolumbar (p = 0.009) and lumbar (p < 0.001) regions.Conclusions
In MM, patients with VCFs have poorer clinical scores at presentation in the presence of sagittal imbalance. Outcome is particularly affected by multiple fractures in the thoracolumbar and lumbar regions and by failure to prevent kyphosis. Patients with MM should be screened for spinal lesions early.