We wished to examine the effectiveness of tibial lengthening using a two ring Ilizarov frame in skeletally immature patients. This is a potentially biomechanically unstable construct which risks the loss of axial control.Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 24 boys and 26 girls, with a mean age of 8.6 years (4 to 14), who underwent 52 tibial lengthening procedures with a mean follow-up of 4.3 years (4.0 to 16.9). Tibial alignment was measured before and after treatment using joint orientation lines from the knee and a calculation of the oblique plane axis.Results
The mean percentage length gain was 20% (13 to 31) with a mean bone-healing index (BHI) of 34 days per centimetre (20 to 54). Age at surgery and location of the osteotomy site showed a strong relationship as the location of the osteotomy migrated more proximally with age. However, no significant correlation was found between BHI and the position of the osteotomy. The coronal and sagittal joint orientation of the lengthened tibias were within the normal range in 67% and 92% of cases, respectively. The oblique plane angulation calculation revealed a statistically significant change pre- to post-operatively in both magnitude (p < 0.05) and direction (p < 0.01), but without clinical consequence. The majority of complications were minor (n = 40 in 27 patients; 1.48 complications per segment lengthened) with no residual disability reported.Conclusion
Two-ring tibial lengthening is effective in maintaining segmental alignment, efficient in callous production and relatively comfortable for the patient with few significant complications.