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The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of previous lumbar surgery in patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to investigate their patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) one year post-operatively.Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register and the Swedish Spine Register gathered between 2002 and 2012 were merged to identify a group of patients who had undergone lumbar surgery before THA (n = 997) and a carefully matched one-to-one control group. We investigated differences in the one-year post-operative PROMs between the groups. Linear regression analyses were used to explore the associations between previous lumbar surgery and these PROMs following THA. The prevalence of prior lumbar surgery was calculated as the ratio of patients identified with previous lumbar surgery between 2002 and 2012, and divided by the total number of patients who underwent a THA in 2012.The prevalence of lumbar surgery prior to THA in 2012 was 3.5% (351 of 10 082). Linear regression analyses showed an association with more pain (B = 4.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.57 to 6.12), worse EuroQol (EQ)-5D index, (B = -0.089, 95% CI -0.112 to -0.066), worse EQ VAS (B = -6.75, 95% CI -8.58 to -4.92), and less satisfaction (B = 6.04, 95% CI 4.05 to 8.02).Lumbar spinal surgery prior to THA is associated with less reduction of pain, worse health-related quality of life, and less satisfaction one year after THA. This is useful information to share in the decision-making process and may help establish realistic expectations of the outcomes of THA in patients who also have previously undergone lumbar spinal surgery.