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Advances in polyethylene (PE) in total hip arthroplasty have led to interest and increased use of highly crosslinked PE (HXLPE) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biomechanical data suggest improved wear characteristics for HXLPE inserts over conventional PE in TKA. Short-term results from registry data and few clinical trials are promising. Our aim is to present a review of the history of HXLPEs, the use of HXLPE inserts in TKA, concerns regarding potential mechanical complications, and a thorough review of the available biomechanical and clinical data.