Reconstruction of the acetabulum after resection of a periacetabular malignancy is technically challenging and many different techniques have been used with varying success. Our aim was to prepare a systematic review of the literature dealing with these techniques in order to clarify the management, the rate of complications and the outcomes.Patients and Methods
A search of PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted for English language articles published between January 1990 and February 2017 with combinations of key search terms to identify studies dealing with periacetabular resection with reconstruction in patients with a malignancy. Studies in English that reported radiographic or clinical outcomes were included. Data collected from each study included: the number and type of reconstructions, the pathological diagnosis of the lesions, the mean age and follow-up, gender distribution, implant survivorship, complications, functional outcome, and mortality. The results from individual studies were combined for the general analysis, and then grouped according to the type of reconstruction.Results
A total of 57 studies met the inclusion criteria and included 1700 patients. Most lesions were metastatic (41%), followed by chondrosarcoma (29%), osteosarcoma (10%), Ewing's sarcoma (7%), and multiple myeloma (2%). The techniques of reconstruction were divided into seven types for analysis: those involving a Harrington reconstruction, a saddle prosthesis, an allograft and allograft prosthesis composite, a pasteurised autograft, a porous tantalum implant, a custom-made prosthesis and a modular hemipelvic reconstruction. The rate of complications was 50%, with infection (14%) and instability (8%) being the most common. Mortality data were available for 1427 patients (84%); 50% had died of disease progression, 23% were alive with disease, and 27% had no evidence of disease at a mean follow-up of 3.4 years (0 to 34).Conclusion
Both the rate of complications and mortality are high following resection of oncological periacetabular lesions and reconstruction. Many types of reconstruction have been used with unique challenges and complications for each technique. Newer prostheses, including custom-made prostheses and porous tantalum implants and augments, have shown promising early functional and radiographic outcomes.