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Identifying predictors of compartment syndrome in the foot after a fracture of the calcaneus may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. The aim of our study was to identify any such predictors.We retrospectively reviewed 303 patients (313 fractures) with a fracture of the calcaneus who presented to us between October 2008 and September 2016. The presence of compartment syndrome and potential predictors were identified by reviewing their medical records. Potential predictors included age, gender, concomitant foot injury, mechanism of injury, fracture classification, time from injury to admission, underlying illness, use of anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents, smoking status and occupation. Associations with predictors were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.Of the 313 fractures of the calcaneus, 12 (3.8%) developed a compartment syndrome. A Sanders type IV fracture was the only strongly associated factor (odds ratio 21.67, p = 0.007). Other variables did not reach statistical significance.A Sanders type IV fracture is the best predictor of compartment syndrome after a fracture of the calcaneus.