The factors that predispose to recurrent instability and revision stabilization procedures after arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior glenohumeral instability remain unclear. We sought to determine the rate and risk factors associated with ongoing instability in patients undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair for instability of the shoulder.Materials and Methods
We used the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database to identify patients with a diagnosis of anterior instability of the shoulder undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair between 2003 and 2011. Patients were followed for a minimum of three years. Baseline demographics and subsequent further surgery to the ipsilateral shoulder were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for recurrent instability.Results
A total of 5719 patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 24.9 years (SD 9.3); 4013 (70.2%) were male. A total of 461 (8.1%) underwent a further procedure involving the ipsilateral shoulder at a mean of 31.5 months (SD 23.8) postoperatively; 117 (2.1%) had a closed reduction and 344 (6.0%) had further surgery. Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair was the most common subsequent surgical procedure (223; 65.4%). Independent risk factors for recurrent instability were: age < 19 years (odds ratio 1.86), Caucasian ethnicity (hazard ratio 1.42), bilateral instability of the shoulder (hazard ratio 2.17), and a history of closed reduction(s) prior to the initial repair (hazard ratio 2.45). Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair was associated with significantly higher rates of ongoing persistent instability than revision open stabilization (12.4%vs5.1%, p = 0.041).Conclusion
The incidence of a further procedure being required in patients undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior glenohumeral instability was 8.1%. Younger age, Caucasian race, bilateral instability, and closed reduction prior to the initial repair were independent risk factors for recurrent instability, while subsequent revision arthroscopic Bankart repair had significantly higher rates of persistent instability than subsequent open revision procedures.