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We report the clinical results of glenoid osteotomy in patients with atraumatic posteroinferior instability associated with glenoid dysplasia.The study reports results in 211 patients (249 shoulders) with atraumatic posteroinferior instability. The patients comprised 63 men and 148 women with a mean age of 20 years. The posteroinferior glenoid surface was elevated by osteotomy at the scapular neck. A body spica was applied to maintain the arm perpendicular to the glenoid for two weeks postoperatively. Clinical results were evaluated using the Rowe score and Japan Shoulder Society Shoulder Instability Score (JSS-SIS); bone union, osteoarthrosis, and articular congruity were examined on plain radiographs.The Rowe score improved from 36 to 88 points, and the JSS-SIS improved from 47 to 81 points. All shoulders exhibited union without progression of osteoarthritis except one shoulder, which showed osteoarthritic change due to a previous surgery before the glenoid osteotomy. All but three shoulders showed improvement in joint congruency. Eight patients developed disordered scapulohumeral rhythm during arm elevation, and 12 patients required additional open stabilization for anterior instability.Good results can be expected from glenoid osteotomy in patients with atraumatic posteroinferior instability associated with glenoid dysplasia.