Mortality and cause of death postoperatively in patients with a hip fracture: A NATIONAL COHORT LONGITUDINAL FOLLOW-UP STUDY

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Abstract

Aims

The aim of this study was to compare the rate of mortality and causes of death in Korean patients who undergo surgery for a fracture of the hip, up to 11 years after the injury, with a control group from the general population.

Materials and Methods

National cohort data from Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service - National Sample Cohort were used. A ratio of 1:4 matched patients with a fracture who underwent surgery (3383, fracture group) between 2003 and 2012, and controls (13 532) were included. The matches were processed for age, gender, income, and region of residence. We also undertook analyses of subgroups according to age and gender. The mean follow-up was 4.45 years (1 to 11).

Results

The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and stroke was significantly higher in the fracture group and dyslipidemia in the controls. Both crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the rate of mortality in the fracture group were > 2 (crude HR 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 2.17, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.21, p < 0.001). The HRs were also > 2 for both men and women, and for both those aged ≥ 50 years and < 50 years. However, for those aged < 50 years, they were insignificant. The rates of mortality due to all 11 major causes of death classified following Korean standard classification of diseases were significantly higher in the fracture group compared with the control group, except those in the mental and behavioral disorders category.

Conclusion

The rate of mortality in the fracture group was significantly higher than in the control group up to 11 years after the surgery. The rate of death due to almost every major cause was significantly higher in the fracture group compared with the control group.

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