Are adverse outcome rates higher in multiple sclerosis patients after total hip arthroplasty?

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Abstract

Aims

This study compared multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a matched cohort. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) implant survivorship; 2) functional outcomes (modified Harris Hip Scores (mHHS), Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Joint Replacement (HOOS JR), and modified Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (mMSIS) scores (with the MS cohort also evaluated based on the disease phenotype)); 3) physical therapy duration and return to function; 4) radiographic outcomes; and 5) complications.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed our institution's database to identify MS patients who underwent THA between January 2008 and June 2016. A total of 34 MS patients (41 hips) were matched in a 1:2 ratio to a cohort of THA patients who did not have MS, based on age, body mass index (BMI), and Charlson/Deyo score. Patient records were reviewed for complications, and their functional outcomes and radiographs were reviewed at their most recent follow-up.

Results

Compared with the matched cohort, MS patients had lower all-cause implant survivorship at eight years (91.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82.7 to 100)vs98.7% (95% CI 96.2 to 100)) (p = 0.033), lower mHHS scores (66vs80, p < 0.001), and HOOS JR scores (79vs88, p = 0.009). Multiple sclerosis patients also required more physiotherapy (five weeksvsthree weeks, p = 0.002) and took longer to return to baseline (seven weeksvsfive weeks, p = 0.010) than the matched cohort. Furthermore, MS patients had more complications than the non-MS patients (sixvszero, p < 0.001). The worse outcomes of the MS group can potentially be explained by predisposition of these patients to mechanical complications and progression of their disease during the period of this study, as demonstrated by worsening of the mMSIS scores (2.9vs3.4; p = 0.008).

Conclusion

MS patients had lower implant survivorship, lower functional outcome scores, and increased complication rates; in addition, MS patients took longer to return to their baseline functional level after THA.

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