Long-Term Maxillomandibular Changes After Maxillary Distraction Osteogenesis in Growing Children With Cleft Lip With or Without Palate

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To evaluate the long-term maxillomandibular changes after maxillary distraction osteogenesis in growing children having cleft lip with or without cleft palate.


Eight Japanese patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate aged 9.3 to 13.1 years.


The maxillary and mandibular positions before (T0), immediately after (T1), and 1, 3, and 5 years after distraction osteogenesis (T2, T3, and T4, respectively) measured on cephalograms superimposed at the sella turcica with the Frankfort horizontal plane as the horizontal reference. The anterior nasal spine (x, y), pogonion (x), and menton (y) were used for linear measurements, and sella turcica-nasion-point A, sella turcica-nasion-point B, and point A-nasion-point B angles were used for angular measurements.


The mean horizontal maxillary advancement (anterior nasal spine [x]) was 12.3 mm during T0 to T1, but -2.7, -1.1, and -0.1 mm of the posttreatment changes were observed during T1 to T2, T2 to T3, and T3 to T4, respectively. Anterior nasal spine (y) shifted 2.3 mm downward during T0 to T1, and further downward changes were observed during T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 (P< .05). Pogonion (x) did not show distinct changes due to individual variance, but menton (y) shifted downward from T1 to T4. Sella turcica-nasion-point A significantly decreased during T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 but not during T3-T4. Point A-nasion-point B significantly decreased only during T2 to T3, and sella turcica-nasion-point B did not show any distinct change.


There was no further maxillary advancement after distraction osteogenesis in the growing children with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Therefore, long-term observation and management of occlusion in case of the mandibular growth pattern are important.

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