Dental and Maxillofacial Characteristics of Six Japanese Individuals With Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal Dysplasia-Clefting Syndrome

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Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip and palate, and lacrimal duct anomalies. Because this syndrome is frequently accompanied by a congenital lack of teeth, narrow palate, and malocclusion, comprehensive orthodontic intervention is required.


To highlight the specific dental and maxillofacial characteristics of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome, six Japanese individuals diagnosed with the syndrome are described here.


The subjects consisted of two boys and four girls (age range, 6.0 to 13.9 years) diagnosed with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome by medical and dental specialists. Their conditions included ectodermal dysplasia (hypodontia, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia, and abnormalities in hair and nails), cleft lip and/or palate, and ectrodactyly. Cephalograms, panoramic x-rays, and dental casts were taken; systemic complications were recorded at the first visit to our dental hospital.


All individuals had severe oligodontia with 9 to 18 missing teeth. The missing teeth were mainly maxillary and mandibular incisors and second bicuspids, arranged in a symmetrical manner. Cephalometric analysis showed retruded and short maxilla due to cleft lip and/or palate. It is interesting that all individuals showed a characteristically shaped mandibular symphysis with a retruded point B. It is likely that this unusual symphyseal morphology is due to the lack of mandibular incisors.


This study demonstrates the presence of severe oligodontia in the incisal and premolar regions and describes a characteristic maxillary and mandibular structure in Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.

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