To evaluate the hypothesis that children with craniosynostosis and their parents have differences in psychosocial outcomes, as compared with an unaffected control group.Design:
Two studies were conducted, both which followed children born with and without craniosynostosis. Study 1 ascertained affected children from clinics, and study 2 ascertained affected children from a population-based study of birth defects.Participants:
Study 1 included 22 children with single-suture craniosynostosis and 18 controls, ages 4 to 5 years. Study 2 included 24 children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and 124 unaffected controls, ages 5 to 9 years.Main Outcome Measures:
Outcome measures included the Child Behavior Checklist, Social Competence Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Parenting Stress Index.Results:
We observed lower scores on measures of health-related quality of life in cases versus controls, with adjusted effect sizes ranging from −0.72 to −0.44 (p< .05) on summary measures. Small but statistically nonsignificant increases in behavioral problems were observed in cases versus controls, with no apparent differences in social competence or parenting stress.Conclusions:
Results provide preliminary evidence suggesting that children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis may have elevated risk for psychosocial difficulties, particularly health-related quality of life. Continued follow-up through preadolescence and adolescence is warranted.