Congenital and Postnatal Factors Inducing Malocclusions in Japanese Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients—Determination Using Logistic Regression Analysis

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To assess the congenital and postnatal factors that affect degree of malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate using multivariate statistical analysis.


Retrospective study.


All information on 135 subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate was obtained from an oral examination and radiograph at the initial examination at an orthodontic clinic and from surgical records. Plaster models were taken before orthodontic treatment. The ages of the subjects ranged from 5 to 8 years with a mean age of 6.9 years. All primary surgeries for the patients were performed at a university hospital.

Main Outcome Measures:

The GOSLON Yardstick was used to assess the dental arch relationships (degree of malocclusion) in patients. Family history of Class III, degree of cleft, and congenitally missing upper lateral incisor on the cleft side were chosen as congenital factors inducing malocclusion. Presurgical orthopedic treatment, cheiloplasty, and palatoplasty were chosen as postnatal factors. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis.


According to adjusted odds ratios, family history of Class III is associated with a significantly worse dental arch relationship. Palatoplasty using push-back alone correlated to a dental arch relationship that was significantly worse than palatoplasty using push-back with a buccal flap.


Multivariate analysis shows evidence that a positive family history of Class III and palatoplasty using push-back alone are associated with worse malocclusion of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

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