The Need for Orthognathic Surgery in Nonsyndromic Patients With Repaired Isolated Cleft Palate

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Abstract

Objective:

To determine the frequency of need for orthognathic surgery among nonsyndromic patients with isolated cleft palate repaired during infancy at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada.

Design:

Retrospective cohort study.

Patients:

Patients with nonsyndromic isolated cleft palate born between 1970 and 1997 with available records including a lateral cephalometric radiograph taken at ≥ 15 years of age.

Methods:

Patients who had undergone or were being prepared for orthognathic surgery were automatically counted as requiring surgery. For the remaining patients, lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced and analyzed. Arbitrarily set cephalometric criteria were used to identify the “objective” need for orthognathic surgery.

Results:

Of the 189 patients identified with nonsyndromic isolated cleft palate and for whom records were available, 25 (13.2%) were deemed to require orthognathic surgery. Of the surgical cohort, 92% required surgical correction for a Class III malocclusion. Similar percentages of males and females required orthognathic surgery. An apparently greater proportion of patients of Asian background (18.5%) than of white background (10.6%) required surgery, but this difference was not significant (P = .205).

Conclusions:

The current results suggest that approximately one in eight patients at our institution with nonsyndromic isolated cleft palate requires orthognathic surgery. There is a tendency for this to be higher in patients of Asian descent and lower in patients of white descent. Variability in extent, severity, and phenotype of the cleft, which may be attributed largely to genetics, may play an important role in dictating the need for orthognathic surgery.

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