Comparison of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Among Schoolchildren With and Without Cleft Lip and/or Palate

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The aim was to compare the oral health-related quality of life among 11- to 14-year-old patients with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and schoolchildren without CLP. The validity and reliability of the Finnish Child Perception Questionnaire designed for 11- to 14-year-olds (CPQ11–14) was also assessed.

Design and Subjects:

Participants in this cross-sectional questionnaire survey study were children aged 11 to 14 years from two groups. The CLP sample included all children of this age who had had CLP selected from the regional treatment register (N = 51). The school sample included children from four school classes (N = 82). Informed consent from parents was obtained. Ethical clearance and parental informed consent were obtained.

Main Outcome Measures:

Oral health-related quality of life was measured with the CPQ11–14.


The CPQ11–14 total and oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well-being, and social well-being subscores were poorer among patients with CLP than among schoolchildren without CLP (mean scores: 55.5 versus 15.0; 11.9 versus 5.1; 14.0 versus 2.8; 12.6 versus 4.2; and 17.1 versus 2.9, respectively; all P < .001 for Mann-Whitney tests). Cronbach alpha value was 0.97 for total scale and between 0.81 and 0.94 for subscales. Among all children in the school sample, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 for total scale and varied between 0.65 and 0.74 for subscales.


The oral health-related quality of life of Finnish children with CLP was considerably poorer than that of their peers in overall and all dimensions, especially social well-being. The CPQ11–14 showed appropriate reliability and validity.

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