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The aim of this study was to investigate clinical aspects and predisposing factors for alveolar bone graft complications in persons born with oral clefts.A total of 105 patients, aged 7 to 57 years old, who received alveolar bone graft at the Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery Center in the National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO), Rio de Janeiro (RJ) from 2009 to 2014 were selected. Data were collected concerning the type of oral cleft, family history of cleft, medical and dental exam, donor area, type of graft material, repaired surgical treatment done, and postoperative follow-up examinations.Postoperative complications developed in 31 patients (32.9%). The mean age at grafting was 16.79 years for the group without complications (n = 63) and 20.13 years for the group with postoperative complications (n = 31). There was a positive association between age and type of graft and cases with alveolar bone graft complications. Patients aged 12 years or more had a four times more chance of developing alveolar bone graft complications. Particulate bone graft from iliac crest demonstrated better results compared with block graft or mixed graft.Patients with cleft lip and palate who were 12 years or older had a greater chance of developing complications after grafting the alveolar bone. Furthermore, particulate alveolar graft from iliac crest had significantly better outcomes.